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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: May Sun 26, 2019 11:59 pm 
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Posts: 1993
Location: Costa Mesa, California
One problem with home brew stuff is you can’t be sure it left the factory in perfect working condition. Sure, commercial radios do have the rare wiring mistake and those do tend to turn up on the used radio market because they have a problem and have always had a problem. With home brew, wiring errors have to be guarded against. This week new crystals came in the mail (I buy them for $5 each) and I hoped that would solve my 15 meter problem. When it didn’t, I knew it had to be a wiring mistake. I set out to check for the 50th time. The big problem is that the crystal oscillator and first mixer module works like a champ on every other band, just not 15. Like previous inspections, I started with the few circuits unique to 15 meters and there it was—the nut for the miniature bandswitch wafer was touching the 15 meter contact. It was sort of hard to see exactly, but it looked like I had my culprit. I added some insulating washers to get the nut clear and hooked everything back up. Still no 15 meters. This time I sat down with the DMM on buzzer and buzzed through all the possible pathways. Then I switched to the Ohms screen and started through the resistance paths, doing resistor math in my head. During this process, I checked the oscillator tube plate to ground and came out 60k high. I had a 75k where a 15k was supposed to be. Purple looks a lot like brown in those little colored stripes. When I had wired the socket, I was using parts from the original and a few random resistors. I wasn’t pulling parts from the sorted cabinet and the little bags with labels. Oops. I replaced the 75k with a 15k. As soon as I applied power, the scope screen lit up with a sine wave. I had my 15 meters. The scope probe is attached to a small coil of ten turns draped over the oscillator tube. Plate to screen 15k. Screen to ground 15k. Now the tube works for 15 meters when it wouldn’t before. My conclusion— and this is a guess— the oscillator needs a somewhat resonant screen (at least at higher frequencies) as well as plate and the 75k was interfering with that. Either that or just the lower screen voltage from the 60k more drop was enough to prevent oscillation at the higher frequency.

On to adding some bands around 6 MHz. These will use existing crystals so that simplifies the whole thing—or not.

Norm

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: May Mon 27, 2019 12:41 am 
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Do you still have patches of hair where you hadn't torn it out yet? I know I would've been in that position....


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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: May Mon 27, 2019 1:04 am 
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I have a full head of hair. The other two hairs fell out years ago. Actually, I love puzzles. My favorite is a difficult Kakuro puzzle. When I finish it there is a rush of satisfaction—then I start the next one. It is the same with radios. I have very little use for a working radio. Sure, I have my license, but that is so I can try out all the radios to see how they work. Now, a radio that doesn’t work. That is a puzzle that begs to be solved.

Norm

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: May Mon 27, 2019 3:50 am 
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Norm Johnson wrote:
....It is the same with radios. I have very little use for a working radio. Sure, I have my license, but that is so I can try out all the radios to see how they work. Now, a radio that doesn’t work. That is a puzzle that begs to be solved.

Norm


Exactly!

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Jun Sun 09, 2019 6:39 pm 
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This weekend I tried to add a segment of frequencies starting at 9.4 MHz and going up to 9.9 MHz. The coil for the crystal was easy and the crystal oscillator oscillated nicely—except if I injected a signal directly into the mixer, it took way too much amplitude. At other bands all was normal. Not wanting to spend more time wrestling with that problem, I moved on to the RF amp stage and wound two transformers and wired them in. The result was a lot of parasitic oscillation and I then spent the rest of the weekend trying to eliminate it. I early on hooked my scope to the output of the RF amp module. This is allowed because I have isolated the final tuned RF circuit with a 6C4 and the signal moves out from the cathode of the 6C4 to the cathode of the first mixer. The signal at the plate of the 6C4 is dumped to ground. My scope showed that for all the upper bands, parasitic oscillation occurred as the tuning capacitor approached minimum. The 9 MHz band was especially problematic and parasitic oscillation occurred broadly across the range.

My fist approach at a solution involved adding a vernier reduction dial for the tuning capacitor to reduce any wobble and allow finer tuning. This didn’t solve the problem but helped. My next step was to make a shield for the tuning capacitor that separated the gangs as much as possible. The capacitor is already in its own enclosure. This also didn’t solve the problem. Finally, I googled RF parasitic oscillation and found a discussion that provided a clue. I tried adding a 1K resistor before the grid of the 6C4. Amazingly, this killed the parasitic oscillation on all the bands. It did nothing to hurt the gain. Before, I just had the secondary of the 6DC6 RF plate transformer feeding directly to the grid of the 6C4. The resistor is called a “grid stop resistor” and can be between 1K and 10K. The 6C4 is in the circuit to allow a cathode path that is low impedance and won’t be affected by a shielded cable for the signal to move to the first mixer/crystal oscillator module.

I am still having issues with the 9 MHz band, so that will have to wait until next week.

Norm

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Jun Sun 16, 2019 7:57 pm 
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Correcting a wiring error solved the 9 MHz band problem. I now have a band for 9.4 MHz to 9.9 MHz and another for 9.875 MHz to 10.375 MHz. This gives me WWV at 10 MHz. I can’t decide if I want anymore bands which means I am focusing on adjusting the performance of the 10 bands I have now. First thing I did was try and shift all the band inductances up a bit so the variable preselctor tuning cap was operating more in its center range. Next I spent a lot of time with my antenna connected, listening to actual stations and judging the performance—and comparing the performance to my HQ-140-XA.

I am pleased by the results except for one glaring problem that appeared on the 6 MHz band. With my preselctor tuning capacitor adjusted to more capacitance, I received a mystery WWV signal. The crystal is 3.750 MHz and my resultant variable IF is 2400 to 2900 kHz. Normally this would be for a band at 6.15 to 6.65 MHz. I also use it for the upper BC band at .850 to 1.35 MHz. What WWV was I hearing? Double 3.75 plus 2.5? I tried a signal generator tone at 10 MHz and got nothing. Then I tried a tone at 5 MHz. Yep. I tried a tone a little higher in frequency and had to tune backward to get there so I knew what was happening. I was hearing double the crystal minus the variable IF when it was at 2.5 MHz.

My question is where is the frequency doubling? My scope is connected to a coil of wire around the outside of the crystal oscillator tube and sees a very clean 3.75 MHz. I know that is only the plate I am seeing. Does the doubling occur in the mixer tube? There is a 4p cap between the oscillator plate and the mixer grid. A 100k resistor connects the mixer grid to ground and the RF signal comes to the mixer at the cathode. When I adjust the preselector higher in frequency to resonance at the 6 MHz range, I can’t quite kill the WWV. It still bleeds through. I think I need to make the 6 MHz band a little more selective by changing the padder I placed in series with the tuning cap. Or I may need to wind another set of coils for the band.

Norm

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Jun Mon 17, 2019 12:59 am 
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Any nonlinearity in any of the tubes will generate a 2nd harmonic. It could be in the crystal oscillator itself. Even if the sinewave looks clean on a scope, there could be enough to cause problems.

How difficult would it be to attenuate the crystal oscillator signal before it goes to the mixer? You may have too much LO signal.

BTW, Congrats on the impressive work you've done on this receiver.


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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Jun Mon 17, 2019 2:10 am 
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Location: Costa Mesa, California
Thanks, Bob. That gives me the thought that I may try a different 6BJ6 oscillator tube. I will also try and "sniff" around the plate coil of the oscillator with my scope hooked to my coil of wire I slip over the tube. As far as attenuating the oscillator signal, I have thought of trying a "grid stop" resistor between the signal and the grid of the triode connected 6AH6 mixer. I have a couple birdies I would like to eliminate and suspect the source is the mixer for at least one of them. Maybe a 1K or 2.2K resistor there would help both issues. Another option is to reduce the coupling capacitor down to 2p from the plate of the oscillator to the grid of the mixer. If the frequency doubles in the mixer tube itself, then I will need to address the issue at the RF stage by increasing selectivity of the tuned circuits.

Bob, your help early on with your website tools for coils and bandspread were certainly instrumental in my getting past that stage of construction.

Norm

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Sep Sat 14, 2019 8:13 pm 
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After several months attending to various things—getting my homeowners insurance resolved in the high fire risk area of my cabin and taking alternate weekends off for camping, I have finally returned to my receiver project. This has allowed me to look at my main problem with a new perspective. Why does the RF stage cathode coupling tube, a 6C4, break into oscillation? I had added a 1K grid stop resistor which gave some relief. Then I changed that to a 10k grid stop resistor, reasoning that if a little of something helps a little, a lot will help a lot. Unfortunately, the added resistance broadened the Q so much that I was receiving strong stations all over the spectrum. So that wasn’t the answer. The answer was me just going back to Frank’s tube data and looking at the recommended values for resistances around the tube. I had been using a 1K plate resistor. Oops. Recommended is 100k. After replacing the 1K with a 100k, the front end now works like any normal front end. Before, when I tapped on the RF tuning capacitor knob, I would loose signal, get a weakened signal, or any number of spurious oscillation issues. It was difficult to find the sweet spot on the RF tuning dial—no more. It is now easy to peak the no signal noise. This is a great relief and allows me to continue adding the final few bands and begin some form of installation into a case with a front panel and actual marked tuning dial.

After months of operating with no dial, I am actually getting pretty good at knowing where I am on a given segment of RF spectrum. I have an appreciation for early radio operators. It turns out, a little practice at wandering in the RF woods with no compass will suffice to teach one where they are.

Norm

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Sep Sat 14, 2019 8:41 pm 
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Glad you solved it, Norm.

You (and we) are getting quite an education via this project.

I am looking forward to “the rest of the story”.

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Sep Sun 15, 2019 6:22 am 
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Norm Johnson wrote:
A number of the transformers and coils will need to be wound--which is why I recently built my coil winder.
Are the plans for the coil winder yours or did you find them somewhere? Can you tell us more about the coil winder you built?
Thank you.


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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Sep Sun 15, 2019 3:32 pm 
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viewtopic.php?f=12&t=333663&start=20

The above post is my coil winding machine. The machine starts with a commercial coil winding hand-crank device I bought for about $80 on EBay. All the metal parts for the machine came from Home Depot except the base which is a 10” by 12” piece of 1/4” plate cold rolled steel. I drilled this and tapped the holes for mounting some parts and used magnetic bases for others. I have 4 rubber feet on the bottom. The rest of the device copies some of the principals of the Gingery coil winder.

It is really difficult to build a machine to create pi-wound coils. The winding needs a controlled wobble across a section of the form with emphasis on the extremes of the wobble. Most of the coils in the radio are solenoid coils. The only pi-wound coils are the IF transformers, so all of the effort to create the pi-winding device was for five coils—the variable IF transformers (four coils) and the variable IF oscillator coil. Pi-winding allows for a larger inductance value while keeping the coil’s structural capacitance as low as possible. This results in higher Q. The coils can also be spaced closer to each other in a smaller area—like an IF can. The difficulties involve not just the mechanism, but also working with Litz wire for these coils. I needed to wind a number of sets of these transformers before I was happy with the results.

Obviously I would have just started with commercially wound transformers if I could have found them. They did not exist. The plans for the radio used Miller transformers which in conjunction with some trimmers and the tuning capacitor tuned a range between 2.4 MHz and 2.9 MHz. I created this stage first as it was the most difficult and would determine if continuing with the project was going to be possible. The RF stage and crystal oscillator used multiple coils and transformer but they are all simple solenoid coils or modified chokes.

Norm

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Sep Mon 16, 2019 12:34 am 
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Attachment:
Radio.jpg
Radio.jpg [ 318.8 KiB | Viewed 763 times ]



I am ready for the panel, dial, and enclosure. First off--how big will this radio be and what configuration will it take as it fits the panel and enclosure? It is a big radio. I plan on using a panel that is 8.5" high and 32" wide. Wow! The case ends up about 14" deep. The dial is a slide-rule type that I found on EBay cheap. I had to modify it--removing the bandswitch index and allowing the tuning to rotate as much of a 360 degree arc as is possible. The original tuning used a carbon potentiometer and I removed that and replaced it with a shaft that can be coupled to the tuning shaft. The bandswitch will use the index from the radio and be connected to the crystal oscillator. The radio has a split bandswitch with the RF coils operating separately from the crystal oscillator. This allows two chassis and also makes it possible to have multiple bands operating from one crystal. The radio now has 10 bands--80, 40, 20, 15, BC high and low, two bands around 6 MHz and two bands around 9 MHz. The bands are a 500 KHz segment of the spectrum. The next step is an enclosure base plate which will support all the individual chassis and a panel. I already have my panel layout and will go to my metal fabricator this week to have him cut and fold the base and cut the panel. The base will be perforated steel sheet metal with the sides folded down 1/2" for rigidity. Besides the radio stages, I think I will include a speaker at the far right side of the panel above the audio chassis. Here are the photos of the dial before and after.

Norm


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Dial 2.jpg
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Panel 2.jpg
Panel 2.jpg [ 123.32 KiB | Viewed 763 times ]

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Sep Sun 29, 2019 4:38 am 
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This week I focused on solving some lingering problems.

The first was a weak band—actually two weak bands that shared the same crystal. Unlike all the other bands, they required ten times the signal input at the antenna to produce an acceptable result. I tried adjusting everything and finally decided it had to be the crystal circuit. Using a bright light I inspected the connections and sure enough, where the resonating plate coil for the crystal oscillator tube connected, I thought I could see where the magnet wire was pushed a little too far into the terminal loop so that the solder held the varnished wire in place but wasn’t connecting to the tinned end. Some fresh solder and that problem was solved.

Next up was a lingering problem with the RF amp, ganged tuning capacitor. It tunes the grid (antenna) and plate of the RF amplifier tube (6DC6). This feeds the grid of the 6C4 used to provide a low impedance path for the signal to travel through a shielded cable to the mixer cathode. Two weeks ago I tamed the 6C4 by changing the plate resistor to a 100k. There still was a nagging issue where I sometimes had to tap the knob of the tuning capacitor to get the signal strength up. It wasn’t a huge deal, but was annoying. I had looked for the problem many times, first thinking it was contacts on the tuning capacitor, or the plates were rubbing, or there was regeneration occurring from feedback. The tuning capacitor is housed in a small metal project box mounted on top of the RF chassis and I had added a sheet metal shield to further isolate the two gangs. It was mounted to the removable cover for the box. When I removed the cover with the radio playing, I noticed a small improvement. This caused me to really look close at the shield and I saw that it may have been placed too close to one of the gangs. So I moved it. With the cover back in place, the radio performed perfectly. I no longer need to tap the knob and get smooth tuning action.

The final problem is second harmonics at double the crystal frequency. This occurs on all the bands using high side injection where the crystals are near the 2.4 to 2.9 MHz first variable IF. For example: the 3.75 MHz crystal is used to tune a frequency at 6.25 MHz (3.75 plus 2.5). Double 3.75 is 7.5 minus the 2.5 IF and that is the 5 MHz WWV station—a very strong signal. 5 MHz is close enough to 6.25 MHz that the selectivity in the RF front end doesn’t eliminate the WWV at 5 MHz. This happens at several bands, but really there aren’t stations in those bands that interfere so I am not going to pursue a solution right now. Other bands further from the IF are okay because the harmonic is so much higher. The 2.5 MHz WWV also can be faintly heard along with the 5 MHz WWV when the radio is tuned to 6.25 MHz. I think in that case, it is because it is at the IF frequency. I just won’t be listening to any stations at 6.25 MHz.

Next up, I need to start my panel. I have been looking at the decals available from Radio Daze and think the Hammarlund HQ 145 set offers the most useable match to my panel labeling needs. I may also have to mix in a few from another Hammarlund set to get everything covered. The dial is a drum so I think once I hand mark an initial paper, I can create a nice computer printed version.

Norm

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Sep Sun 29, 2019 2:00 pm 
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Amazing patience and perseverance, Norm.

It looks like we’re about done with this project.

What are we going to do next?

(And, yes, I DO have a mouse in my pocket. :D )

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Sep Sun 29, 2019 4:04 pm 
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Thanks, Chuck. I have a little more to do on this project. After the radio has been completed, I need a stand-alone power supply for the radio, and I will also build an amplifier for stronger audio output. Of course, like most of us, my garage has a shelf with unrestored radios that have been sitting there for a few years. I have a SP 600 in pieces, a SX 42, a FT 101ZD, a CE 20A, and a few others. As much as I would like to build a transmitter to go with the Deluxe Receiver, I am not comfortable with the HV when it comes to home brewing. As I get older, I have grown to know that I must understand the concept of “limits.” No more mountain bike riding (broken neck), no more drinking, no sugar, no backpacking, and no home brewing with high voltage.

Norm

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Sep Sun 29, 2019 7:33 pm 
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I totally understand and agree. While I was restoring my TR-4 and AC-4 awhile back, I disconnected the TX HV at the power supply end while restoring the receiver just to make it slightly less worrisome.

Recognizing and adapting to our limitations is a part of “growing” older I believe. Part of the trick is to keep on going doing what we can safely and realistically do and and turning loose of the rest without mourning it overmuch.

I know, it’s much easier said than done.

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Oct Wed 16, 2019 2:10 am 
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I did a little more on the radio this past weekend. I installed the dial and marked it and then I used the heck out of the radio. It actually makes it easier to enjoy the radio when you have a dial with frequencies marked--who would have thought? Before installing the dial to the tuning section, I made a modification. The shaft with the drive gear was floating and just tightly loaded against the two capacitor gears. This needed fixing. I added a panel bushing for the rear end to ride in and that bushing has a hole that is enlarged where there is some slop. The bushing floats in the hole and has a spring so that the drive gear has some tension loading to the other capacitor gears. It is a small change, but I am trying to "smooth" out the action for the tuning. There is now a dial cord driven reduction and a gear reduction and two capacitors, so the easier everything turns, the better. Right now it is working well. All these reductions give me 375 KHz tuning range for each band. The radio was designed for 400 KHz, but I am settling for the smaller range, unless I can figure a way to add another 25 KHz to the reduction gearing.

The bands are working well. I still get some oscillation breaking out when I am near max peak on the antenna and RF plate tuning. This usually starts okay until the receiver warms up and then is only on some bands. The AM BC bands are really great. The radio outperforms by a wide margin any other BC band radio I own--including my car radio.

Here are the photos.

Norm


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Tuning gears 1.jpg
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Spring load.jpg
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Dial installed 1.jpg
Dial installed 1.jpg [ 237.77 KiB | Viewed 561 times ]

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Oct Wed 16, 2019 3:50 am 
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A very inspiring and informative project. Thank you for publishing your work.

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 Post subject: Re: A Deluxe Receiver for the DX Operator
PostPosted: Oct Tue 22, 2019 9:11 pm 
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Norm Johnson wrote:
I...snip I have very little use for a working radio. Sure, I have my license, but that is so I can try out all the radios to see how they work. Now, a radio that doesn’t work. That is a puzzle that begs to be solved.

Norm


Norm,

Been enjoying reading this for a while, I am the same way, working radios are boring. Broken radios are puzzles. I am far away from you in knowledge, so I mostly just read and learn. Keep up the good work!


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